Let’s combine research and practice!
In Finland, early academic research in architecture was closely tied to practical design issues: Ole Gripenberg’s doctoral dissertation Asuntorakentamisen muoto ja tuotantokustannukset (1938) dealt with the form and production costs of residential construction and was based on his experiences as an architect. The first Finnish architect to earn a doctoral degree in urban planning was Olli Kivinen in 1960 – like Gripenberg, he also remained actively involved in design and planning work also after his dissertation. The works by Kivinen covered a wide range of projects from master plans to individual buildings. Both architects were also active as professors and were therefore simultaneously influencing the development of research and education in the field.